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Improve data transmission in IPFS


In recent years, in the field of decentralized storage and data recovery, the speed of interplanetary file system (IPFS) data recovery has been a major issue (long problem). However, an article published in SIGCOMM, an international summit in communications networks, which has been a technical breakthrough for the blockchain storage industry for many years.

Improved speed of data retrieval in IPFS using ICN and NDN networks

From September 24-26, 2019, the SIGCOMM Summit was successfully held in Macau, China. This is a famous summit organized by the Association for Computing (ACM) cooperation with Cisco, Huawei, Intel and other major international manufacturers of network infrastructure in the field of communication networks. ACM contains several professional organizations, and the Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM) is just one of the organizations.

Meanwhile, SIGCOMM has a vital function. The organization has extremely high standards on the quality and quantity of paper. The papers selected for the conference will not only have a fundamental contribution, but will also have a leading influence and a solid experience of the system. In terms of quantity, SIGCOMM will only accept around 30 conference papers each year, and its acceptance rate is only around 10%. Of course, virtually all papers accepted by SIGCOMM will be widely cited. Therefore, it is an honor for all researchers in the field of communication networks to publish papers at the cutting edge conference, SIGCOMM. This shows that this technology will inevitably bring a drastic change to the blockchain storage space.

On the afternoon of September 25, 2019, eight computer scientists from the University of London, the University of California, Los Angeles and the University of Osaka in Japan published an article on a proposal for a brand new IPFS data recovery, which caught the attention of researchers. and experts in the field of decentralized storage. The document illustrates that the ability to recover IPFS data has been improved more than 20 times by NDN technology.

Content recovery markets

Video content distribution

The Future Direction of Technology: Decentralized Storage and Data Retrieval

In this conference paper, 8 scientists presented the demand for Internet video content distribution in the first place, thus explaining their thoughts on the area of ​​P2P storage and retrieval. They all agreed that IPFS as a representative, decentralized storage and retrieval will be the development of the future direction of industries and technology.

In addition, the scientists compared the performance differences of IP and ICN / NDN networks in P2P recovery respectively from a professional point of view,

In addition, he pointed out the data recovery performance shortcomings in IPFS and proposed an adaptive routing algorithm based on the table of interest satisfied (an algorithm with table of interest satisfied), which can increase the speed of recovery. existing IPFS networks dozens of times.

In the summary, scientists made preparations for future work. They hope to further integrate blockchain and NDN technology, and ultimately promote the full innovation of blockchain storage technology.

Internet video delivery

Over the past five years, global IP traffic has suddenly tripled, and the main driving force behind the increase in traffic is rapid audience demand for video content. According to authoritative data, the amount of video demand data will double again by 2021. Currently, many content producers rely heavily on NDT providers to distribute their content to more end users . While the most popular content producers are willing to pay more in traffic distribution fees, these content producers generally tend to lower this portion of the cost.

On the other hand, the CDN market is very competitive. Network and hardware costs for large CDN companies are very high. At the same time, the profits of CDN services are relatively low, and the source of the profits mainly depends on the additional services. In these circumstances, the peer-to-peer (P2P) network has incredible advantages.

P2P content storage and retrieval

Typically, a peer-to-peer network can retrieve content through neighboring node storage devices, reducing the load on the entire network. In addition, the peer-to-peer network has a capacity for self-improvement. The content becomes more popular, the more nodes cache the content data, so the cost of data storage becomes very low. However, the current peer-to-peer network is mainly used for downloading large files, and it has not been popularized among user groups in general. To some extent, the peer-to-peer network has some business potential.

Decentralization of storage and recovery

Above the concept of point-to-point network, the industry has further developed the concept of distributed storage. Distributed storage provides decentralized data storage and retrieval capabilities. Distributed storage based on new distributed ledger and cryptography protocols and mechanisms, through the consensus mechanism and crypto-cryptocurrency, to provide certain incentives to resource providers. Additionally, it can help market players to reach consensus on evidence of useful resource contributions in distributed storage, through a verifiable market involving multiple parties, so as to benefit multiple parties.

With the continued development of Internet business needs, data content is already the biggest demand side of Internet traffic today. with demand, the disadvantages of which are gradually being exposed. Since 2010, the design of content-centric network architecture (ICN) different from TCP / IP has gradually appeared in the field of scientific research, and has received the support of a large number of universities, companies and governments. In recent years, open source scientific research projects represented by NDN and CDN have been among those representatives.

IPFS Interplanetary File System

The IPFS Interplanetary File System (IPFS) is a content-centric design similar to ICN and NDN. The system maps the CID of the content to the host via a self-checking content hash of the content ID and human readable names to be mapped. In addition, IPFS provides data block transmission services through BitSwap protocol and rewards resource providers through FileCoin.

In the article, the scientists designed a test to check the performance difference between pure IPFS system and IPFS system in NDN network in terms of video data transmission.

Preliminary comparison - Configuration

The image above shows some parameter settings from the experiment. A 10 minute video file with 480P resolution is used for the experiment. The document uses NS-3 to run the IPFS product model. NDN uses the NDN SIM client end. The routing cache feature is temporarily disabled. There are three NDN transfer strategies: ASF, NCC and the best route strategy respectively.

Preliminary comparison - Results

Finally, the conclusion of the article is: The recovery performance of pure IPFS system is relatively low, mainly due to the problem of DHT technology address fetch speed used by IPFS, and the efficiency BitSwap protocol transmission rate is too weak, and it will go through different nodes and transmit duplicate file fragments at the same time causing loss.

Comparison data shows that NDN-based IPFS has a 20-fold improvement in addressing performance over pure IPFS; In addition, NDN-based IPFS has 20 times the throughput of pure IPFS.


The authors of the article believed that the ICN / NDN communication protocol built on the existing P2P distribution network is very valuable. It adopts adaptive state transfer, uses SNAMP to ensure namespace security, and uses SIT routing to search for content in the same area of ​​the network, to ensure that the NDN network is more efficient than the network IP. Additionally, Filecoin / IPFS self-check incentive mechanism and denomination are also available in ICN / NDN based networks. Hashing content in the IPFS network can be part of the naming of the NDN architecture.


In today’s Internet, the delivery of large-scale content such as video on demand (VoD) requires a significant investment in a large-scale distributed infrastructure. Content providers (CPs) often request third-party content delivery networks (CDNs) or build their own expensive content delivery infrastructure to cope with peaks in demand and maintain adequate Quality of Service (QoS), while content providers Internet service providers (ISPs) must reconfigure their network.

According to the document, this explains why the industry has taken the lead in the first step to improve the IPFS system. This solution uses the user’s storage space as a CDN cache and provides sufficient quality content (i.e. similar to CDN) while retrieving the content. as a reward for using user resources in the market. As similar candidates for such systems, he considers P2P storage recently and delivery systems that use new mechanisms, such as reward for useful work (such as storage), while ensuring fairness and accountability. with proof of password.

During the speech of SIGCOMM, the author presented the popular Interstellar File System (IPFS) and studied its performance in delivering VoD content locally within the ISP. Their research results show that running IPFS (running over IP) has performance limitations, and supplementing it through the ICN network layer can dramatically improve the quality of delivery. Next, they proposed and compared several forwarding strategies for ICN, which can effectively supplement routing requests and load balance between peers with limited uplink resources.

We believe that ICN / NDN technology applies to IPFS, the field of decentralized storage is bound to be a new technological revolution. Let’s look forward to it.


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